“Basic Knowledge of Textiles”

“Basic Knowledge of Textiles” “Basic Knowledge of Fabrics” Chapter Basic Knowledge of Fabrics 1. Unit conversion: 1 yard (Y) = 0.9144 meters (M) 1 inch (1″)…

“Basic Knowledge of Textiles”

“Basic Knowledge of Fabrics”
Chapter Basic Knowledge of Fabrics
1. Unit conversion: 1 yard (Y) = 0.9144 meters (M) 1 inch (1″) = 2.54 centimeters (CM) 1 yard = 36 inches 1 pound (LB) = 454 grams (g) 1 ounce = (OZ) = 28.3 grams (g)
2. Definition of fabric specification parameters:
1. Dennier: Indicates the length of long fiber yarn Thickness, that is, the weight of a yarn with a length of 9000 meters is 1 gram (g), usually defined as 1 Dan, represented by the English letter “D”. For example: a yarn with a length of 9000 meters is said to weigh 70 grams. It is defined as 70 Dan. It is mainly used to indicate the thickness of chemical fibers.
2. Number of strips and warp and weft density: Indicates the density of the cloth, that is, the sum of the number of warp and weft yarns per square inch, using the English letter “T” means. When counting strips, pay attention to analyzing the weaving method of the fabric and find out the corresponding weaving rules, so that you can accurately measure the number of strips.
3. F number: Each warp or weft is composed of several thin yarns , F number indicates the number of fine yarn strands in a warp or weft yarn, represented by the English letter “F”. Generally speaking, the larger the “F number”, the looser and softer the fabric feels. On the contrary, the thinner and harder the fabric feels.
4. The thickness of staple fiber yarn is represented by “count yarn” under normal circumstances, that is, the length of yarn poked out of 1 pound of cotton is 840 yards. This yarn is called 1 count yarn, using the English letter “s” ” means, for example, 21 counts of yarn is 21s. It is mainly used to indicate the thickness of cotton, linen, tencel, blended chemical fiber fabric fibers and chemical fiber short fibers. (After conversion: 21S is equivalent to the weight of 250D) 5. Fabric specifications Method:
Thickness of warp yarn/number of F×thickness of weft yarn/number of F×effective effective width Number of warp yarns+number of weft yarns
For example:
70D/36F×70D/36F×60″ can also be abbreviated as 70D × 190T Including silk cotton, linen, wool, etc., man-made fibers include nylon, polyester, acetate, etc. The following is a detailed introduction to several more commonly used fibers:
A. Nylon: English is “Nylon”, generally used “N” means, also called “nylon”. Nylon is divided into “nylon 6” and “nylon 66”. “Nylon 66” has better physical properties than “nylon 6”, and the price is also more expensive. Generally speaking Next, it emits white smoke when burned with fire, which sounds like mustard. It is usually colored with acid dyes.
B. Polyester: It is called “Polyester” in English and is generally represented by “T”. Under normal circumstances, it is burned with fire Black smoke is emitted (but please also note that nylon will turn into black smoke after burning due to the glue, so pay attention to identify it), it burns faster and sounds smellier. Disperse dyes are usually used for coloring, and attention should be paid to dye migration and sublimation fastness issues.
C. Cotton: English is “Cotton”, generally expressed by “C”. Under normal circumstances, when burning with fire, the burning speed is slow, the flame is yellow, and the smell of burning cotton is familiar to everyone. The ash after burning of natural cotton is white, while most of the ash after burning of artificial cotton is black, but the taste is similar. Usually colored with reactive dyes or direct dyes.
D. Interlaced types such as: interlaced nylon and polyester (N/T), interlaced polyester and nylon (T/N), interlaced nylon and cotton (N/C), interlaced cotton and nylon (C/N), interlaced polyester and cotton (T /C), cotton-polyester interlaced (C/T) and other fiber interlaced types. The setting of the name of staggered fabrics is based on the principle of “the names of warp fibers come first and the names of weft fibers come last”. For example, “N/C” means “the warp is nylon and the weft is cotton”, and “C/N” means “the warp is nylon and the weft is cotton”. “The warp is cotton and the weft is nylon.” And so on for the rest.
E. Other fibers include acetate, wool, hemp and silk, as well as blended chemical fiber fabrics, and Tencel fiber (English Tencel, viscose fiber made from leaves as raw material).
2. Classification according to weaving method:
According to weaving method, it is divided into woven fabric, knitted fabric and non-woven fabric. They can be subdivided as follows:
A. Knitted fabric: Generally, there are circular knitted fabrics and warp knitted fabrics
B. Woven fabrics: The fabric is made of warp and weft yarns interlaced. According to the different ways of interweaving warp and weft, it can be divided into plain weave (Taffeta), twill weave (Twill), satin weave (Sattin) and jacquard (Dobby). “Sanyuan weave”), and at the same time, the warp or weft yarns are plied to form various patterns. In short, there are many types and changes, and they must be studied and experienced one by one in actual work.
C. Non-woven fabric: not woven, made of fibers directly bonded and pressed.
3. According to the manufacturing method of yarn, it can be divided into:
A. FDY (filament or raw yarn), DTY (low elastic yarn), ATY (air variable yarn). Products woven by FDY include nylon, polyester, FDY Oxford and other fabrics; products woven by DTY include pongee, peach skin brushed, low-elastic combed cotton, etc.; ATY is mainly used for weaving tasse Lumbu.��Super water repellent (Teflon treatment), moisture wicking, antibacterial and deodorizing, etc. B. Because the setting temperature is high, you should pay attention to the color changes before and after setting, especially some sensitive colors, such as gray, military green, light khaki, etc. Products generally require the color to be aligned after finalization. C. Styling can control the effective width, warp and weft density, shrinkage rate, etc. of the cloth, especially the control of shrinkage rate, which directly affects the finishing cost, so great attention should be paid to it. (Our company’s order shrinkage requirement is generally 3% washing shrinkage, and strict requirements are 2% washing shrinkage). The three main factors that affect the setting effect are setting temperature, speed and overfeeding. D. Introduction to several types of styling:
① Water-splashing styling makes the fabric water-proof and dust-proof;
② Soft styling makes the fabric feel soft and smooth, but pay attention to whether the fabric will slip. Water repellency and soft styling can be done at the same time to make the fabric both water-blocking and soft, but the softener will affect the degree of water repellency.
③Resin shaping is mainly used to fix the yarn of the fabric and make the hand feel stiff. Some resins contain formaldehyde, so be careful when selecting them; water splashing and resin shaping can be done at the same time, and the resin can promote the water splashing agent.
④ Fireproofing has an auxiliary effect on the fireproofing function of the fabric. Fireproofing can also be done with water-splashing shaping at the same time, but great attention must be paid to the selection of water-splashing agents, otherwise the fireproofing effect will be too great.
⑤ Anti-static styling makes the fabric anti-static and can be done at the same time as water-splashing styling, but it will have an impact on the water-splashing effect.
⑥ Moisture wicking and styling allows the fabric to quickly absorb sweat, making it more comfortable to wear in casual wear. It cannot be done at the same time as splashing water.
⑦ Antibacterial and anti-odor finishing is mainly used to make fabrics have antibacterial functions and is mainly used in medical facilities.
⑧Super water-repellent styling (also called Teflon treatment): It has better water-blocking and dust-proof effects than ordinary water-repellent styling, and it also has oil-proof function. Generally speaking, customers will ask for a DuPont hangtag.
7. Pressing and gluing:
A. The functions of pressing are ① to soften the hand feel ② to make the pressed surface of the fabric flatter, to reduce the gaps between the fabric fibers to prevent velvet, or to make it easier to apply glue. Achieve higher water pressure ③ Make the glued surface more complete and beautiful ④ The surface will have a bright effect after pressing. B. The three elements of pressing are temperature, speed and pressure. The color of the fabric will change after pressing. C. Gluing can make the fabric water-proof, velvet-proof, wind-blocking and other functions. It can also fix the yarn of the fabric, increase the look and feel, and thicken the feel, making the fabric more valuable. D. Gluing includes acrylic (also known as AC, PA), PU glue, breathable glue, which can be organized into transparent glue, white glue, silver glue, colored glue, bead-finished glue, excellent glue, etc. Corresponding raw materials can also be added to the glue to make it anti-ultraviolet, fireproof, and anti-yellowing.
E. When applying glue, pay attention to controlling the water pressure, feel (thickness, softness and hardness), glue uniformity, glue peeling strength, water washing resistance (whitening), whiteness, etc. Also pay attention to the rubber particles, glue marks, and whether it is dry on the rubber surface. Pay attention to the effect of applying waterstop strips (PVC strips/PU strips) on the rubber surface.
8. Laminating PVC: Pay attention to the thickness and feel of the lamination, the peel strength of the lamination, the quality of the adhesive surface, etc.
9. Other finishing: dry PU (release paper), lamination, PU leather, etc.
10. Washing: Some cotton, N/C, and T/C also need to go through the washing process. There are three types of washing: general washing, soft washing, and enzyme washing (to remove floating hair on the surface of cotton cloth).
11. Finishing inspection: Inspecting the quality of finished products, classifying them into grades, and packaging and sorting them for shipment. Generally, inspection records and matching discrepancies are required. If you have any questions, please report them to the salesperson promptly so that you can communicate with customers in a timely manner.

Chapter 3 Quality Key Points of Fabrics
1. Effective width: generally refers to the effective width, that is, the effective width within the pinhole, or the effective width after gluing .
2. Longitude and latitude density: When there are strict requirements, you must pay attention to measuring the longitude and latitude density.
3. Weft camber: Generally, the weft camber of plaid fabrics should not be greater than 3%, and the weft camber of plain fabrics should not be greater than 5%.
4. Shrinkage: The shrinkage in the warp and weft directions of the finished product after washing.
5. Water splashing degree: ISO is measured in degrees (50 degrees bad to 100 degrees good), or measured in AATCC levels (1 bad to 5 good). AATCC level 3 is equivalent to ISO’s 80 degrees.
6. Dyeing fastness: This is a particularly important indicator, which includes washing fastness (dye fastness to fade, stain fastness), water fastness (fading, staining), Sunlight fastness (fading), rubbing fastness (fading, staining), perspiration fastness (fading, staining), sublimation fastness, dye migration, etc., are measured by grade (1 grade difference ~Level 5 is good).
7. Strength: tensile strength, tear strength, bursting strength (kg/cm2).
8. Water pressure resistance: the strength of the cloth against water pressure (water repellency), For example, 2000mm/H2O (millimeters of water column), the higher the value, the better the water repellency.
9. Air permeability: The unit is g/M2*Day, which means the mass of water passing through 1 square meter of fabric under a certain temperature and humidity for 24 hours.
10. Oil repellency: a test indicator used for Teflon-finished fabrics, divided into 5 levels (level 1 is poor to level 5 is good).
11. There are other tests on fire resistance, anti-static, anti-ultraviolet and other characteristics. These require professional institutions to have methods to test

AAASDGGERY6UFGHM2*Day represents the mass of water passing through 1 square meter of fabric in 24 hours at a certain temperature and humidity.
10. Oil repellency: a test indicator used for Teflon-finished fabrics, divided into 5 levels (level 1 is poor to level 5 is good).
11. There are other tests on fire resistance, anti-static, anti-ultraviolet and other characteristics. These require professional institutions to have methods to test


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